Utility Functions

General Utility

redbot.core.utils.bounded_gather(*coros_or_futures, return_exceptions=False, limit=4, semaphore=None)[source]

A semaphore-bounded wrapper to asyncio.gather().

Parameters:
  • *coros_or_futures – The awaitables to run in a bounded concurrent fashion.

  • return_exceptions (bool) – If true, gather exceptions in the result list instead of raising.

  • limit (Optional[int]) – The maximum number of concurrent tasks. Used when no semaphore is passed.

  • semaphore (Optional[asyncio.Semaphore]) – The semaphore to use for bounding tasks. If None, create one using loop and limit.

Raises:

TypeError – When invalid parameters are passed

redbot.core.utils.bounded_gather_iter(*coros_or_futures, limit=4, semaphore=None)[source]

An iterator that returns tasks as they are ready, but limits the number of tasks running at a time.

Parameters:
  • *coros_or_futures – The awaitables to run in a bounded concurrent fashion.

  • limit (Optional[int]) – The maximum number of concurrent tasks. Used when no semaphore is passed.

  • semaphore (Optional[asyncio.Semaphore]) – The semaphore to use for bounding tasks. If None, create one using loop and limit.

Raises:

TypeError – When invalid parameters are passed

redbot.core.utils.can_user_manage_channel(obj, channel, /, allow_thread_owner=False)[source]

Checks if a guild member can manage the given channel.

This function properly resolves the permissions for discord.Thread as well.

Parameters:
  • obj (discord.Member) – The guild member to check permissions for. If passed messageable resolves to a guild channel/thread, this needs to be an instance of discord.Member.

  • channel (Union[discord.abc.GuildChannel, discord.Thread]) – The messageable object to check permissions for. If this resolves to a DM/group channel, this function will return True.

  • allow_thread_owner (bool) – If True, the function will also return True if the given member is a thread owner. This can, for example, be useful to check if the member can edit a channel/thread’s name as that, in addition to members with manage channel/threads permission, can also be done by the thread owner.

Returns:

Whether the user can manage the given channel.

Return type:

bool

redbot.core.utils.can_user_react_in(obj, messageable, /)[source]

Checks if a user/guild member can react in the given messageable.

This function properly resolves the permissions for discord.Thread as well.

Note

Without making an API request, it is not possible to reliably detect whether a guild member (who is NOT current bot user) can react in a private thread.

If it’s essential for you to reliably detect this, you will need to try fetching the thread member:

can_react = can_user_react_in(member, thread)
if thread.is_private() and not thread.permissions_for(member).manage_threads:
    try:
        await thread.fetch_member(member.id)
    except discord.NotFound:
        can_react = False
Parameters:
  • obj (discord.abc.User) – The user or member to check permissions for. If passed messageable resolves to a guild channel/thread, this needs to be an instance of discord.Member.

  • messageable (discord.abc.Messageable) – The messageable object to check permissions for. If this resolves to a DM/group channel, this function will return True.

Returns:

Whether the user can send messages in the given messageable.

Return type:

bool

Raises:

TypeError – When the passed channel is of type discord.PartialMessageable.

redbot.core.utils.can_user_send_messages_in(obj, messageable, /)[source]

Checks if a user/member can send messages in the given messageable.

This function properly resolves the permissions for discord.Thread as well.

Note

Without making an API request, it is not possible to reliably detect whether a guild member (who is NOT current bot user) can send messages in a private thread.

If it’s essential for you to reliably detect this, you will need to try fetching the thread member:

can_send_messages = can_user_send_messages_in(member, thread)
if thread.is_private() and not thread.permissions_for(member).manage_threads:
    try:
        await thread.fetch_member(member.id)
    except discord.NotFound:
        can_send_messages = False
Parameters:
  • obj (discord.abc.User) – The user or member to check permissions for. If passed messageable resolves to a guild channel/thread, this needs to be an instance of discord.Member.

  • messageable (discord.abc.Messageable) – The messageable object to check permissions for. If this resolves to a DM/group channel, this function will return True.

Returns:

Whether the user can send messages in the given messageable.

Return type:

bool

Raises:

TypeError – When the passed channel is of type discord.PartialMessageable.

redbot.core.utils.deduplicate_iterables(*iterables)[source]

Returns a list of all unique items in iterables, in the order they were first encountered.

redbot.core.utils.get_end_user_data_statement(file)[source]

This function attempts to get the end_user_data_statement key from cog’s info.json. This will log the reason if None is returned.

Example

You can use this function in cog package’s top-level __init__.py to conveniently reuse end user data statement from info.json file placed in the same directory:

from redbot.core.utils import get_end_user_data_statement

__red_end_user_data_statement__ = get_end_user_data_statement(__file__)

async def setup(bot):
    ...

To help detect issues with the info.json file while still allowing the cog to load, this function logs an error if info.json file doesn’t exist, can’t be parsed, or doesn’t have an end_user_data_statement key.

Parameters:

file (Union[pathlib.Path, str]) – The __file__ variable for the cog’s __init__.py file.

Returns:

The end user data statement found in the info.json or None if there was an issue finding one.

Return type:

Optional[str]

redbot.core.utils.get_end_user_data_statement_or_raise(file)[source]

This function attempts to get the end_user_data_statement key from cog’s info.json.

Example

You can use this function in cog package’s top-level __init__.py to conveniently reuse end user data statement from info.json file placed in the same directory:

from redbot.core.utils import get_end_user_data_statement_or_raise

__red_end_user_data_statement__ = get_end_user_data_statement_or_raise(__file__)

async def setup(bot):
    ...

In order to ensure that you won’t end up with no end user data statement, this function raises if info.json file doesn’t exist, can’t be parsed, or doesn’t have an end_user_data_statement key.

Parameters:

file (Union[pathlib.Path, str]) – The __file__ variable for the cog’s __init__.py file.

Returns:

The end user data statement found in the info.json.

Return type:

str

Raises:
  • FileNotFoundError – When info.json does not exist.

  • KeyError – When info.json does not have the end_user_data_statement key.

  • json.JSONDecodeError – When info.json can’t be decoded with json.load()

  • UnicodeError – When info.json can’t be decoded due to bad encoding.

  • Exception – Any other exception raised from pathlib and json modules when attempting to parse the info.json for the end_user_data_statement key.

class redbot.core.utils.AsyncIter(iterable, delay=0, steps=1)[source]

Bases: AsyncIterator[_T], Awaitable[List[_T]]

Asynchronous iterator yielding items from iterable that sleeps for delay seconds every steps items.

Parameters:
  • iterable (Iterable) – The iterable to make async.

  • delay (Union[float, int]) – The amount of time in seconds to sleep.

  • steps (int) – The number of iterations between sleeps.

Raises:

ValueError – When steps is lower than 1.

Examples

>>> from redbot.core.utils import AsyncIter
>>> async for value in AsyncIter(range(3)):
...     print(value)
0
1
2
async for ... in enumerate(start=0)[source]

Async iterable version of enumerate.

Parameters:

start (int) – The index to start from. Defaults to 0.

Returns:

An async iterator of tuples in the form of (index, item).

Return type:

AsyncIterator[Tuple[int, T]]

Examples

>>> from redbot.core.utils import AsyncIter
>>> iterator = AsyncIter(['one', 'two', 'three'])
>>> async for i in iterator.enumerate(start=10):
...     print(i)
(10, 'one')
(11, 'two')
(12, 'three')
async for ... in filter(function)[source]

Filter the iterable with an (optionally async) predicate.

Parameters:

function (Callable[[T], Union[bool, Awaitable[bool]]]) – A function or coroutine function which takes one item of iterable as an argument, and returns True or False.

Returns:

An object which can either be awaited to yield a list of the filtered items, or can also act as an async iterator to yield items one by one.

Return type:

AsyncFilter[T]

Examples

>>> from redbot.core.utils import AsyncIter
>>> def predicate(value):
...     return value <= 5
>>> iterator = AsyncIter([1, 10, 5, 100])
>>> async for i in iterator.filter(predicate):
...     print(i)
1
5
>>> from redbot.core.utils import AsyncIter
>>> def predicate(value):
...     return value <= 5
>>> iterator = AsyncIter([1, 10, 5, 100])
>>> await iterator.filter(predicate)
[1, 5]
__await__()[source]

Returns a list of the iterable.

Examples

>>> from redbot.core.utils import AsyncIter
>>> iterator = AsyncIter(range(5))
>>> await iterator
[0, 1, 2, 3, 4]
await find(predicate, default=None)[source]

Calls predicate over items in iterable and return first value to match.

Parameters:
  • predicate (Union[Callable, Coroutine]) – A function that returns a boolean-like result. The predicate provided can be a coroutine.

  • default (Optional[Any]) – The value to return if there are no matches.

Raises:

TypeError – When predicate is not a callable.

Examples

>>> from redbot.core.utils import AsyncIter
>>> await AsyncIter(range(3)).find(lambda x: x == 1)
1
await flatten()[source]

Returns a list of the iterable.

Examples

>>> from redbot.core.utils import AsyncIter
>>> iterator = AsyncIter(range(5))
>>> await iterator.flatten()
[0, 1, 2, 3, 4]
map(func)[source]

Set the mapping callable for this instance of AsyncIter.

Important

This should be called after AsyncIter initialization and before any other of its methods.

Parameters:

func (Union[Callable, Coroutine]) – The function to map values to. The function provided can be a coroutine.

Raises:

TypeError – When func is not a callable.

Examples

>>> from redbot.core.utils import AsyncIter
>>> async for value in AsyncIter(range(3)).map(bool):
...     print(value)
False
True
True
await next(default=Ellipsis)[source]

Returns a next entry of the iterable.

Parameters:

default (Optional[Any]) – The value to return if the iterator is exhausted.

Raises:

StopAsyncIteration – When default is not specified and the iterator has been exhausted.

Examples

>>> from redbot.core.utils import AsyncIter
>>> iterator = AsyncIter(range(5))
>>> await iterator.next()
0
>>> await iterator.next()
1
async for ... in without_duplicates()[source]

Iterates while omitting duplicated entries.

Examples

>>> from redbot.core.utils import AsyncIter
>>> iterator = AsyncIter([1,2,3,3,4,4,5])
>>> async for i in iterator.without_duplicates():
...     print(i)
1
2
3
4
5

Chat Formatting

for ... in redbot.core.utils.chat_formatting.pagify(text, delims=('\n',), *, priority=False, escape_mass_mentions=True, shorten_by=8, page_length=2000)[source]

Generate multiple pages from the given text.

The returned iterator supports length estimation with operator.length_hint().

Note

This does not respect code blocks or inline code.

Parameters:
  • text (str) – The content to pagify and send.

  • delims (sequence of str, optional) – Characters where page breaks will occur. If no delimiters are found in a page, the page will break after page_length characters. By default this only contains the newline.

  • priority (bool) – Set to True to choose the page break delimiter based on the order of delims. Otherwise, the page will always break at the last possible delimiter.

  • escape_mass_mentions (bool) – If True, any mass mentions (here or everyone) will be silenced.

  • shorten_by (int) – How much to shorten each page by. Defaults to 8.

  • page_length (int) – The maximum length of each page. Defaults to 2000.

Yields:

str – Pages of the given text.

redbot.core.utils.chat_formatting.bold(text, escape_formatting=True)[source]

Get the given text in bold.

Note: By default, this function will escape text prior to emboldening.

Parameters:
  • text (str) – The text to be marked up.

  • escape_formatting (bool, optional) – Set to False to not escape markdown formatting in the text.

Returns:

The marked up text.

Return type:

str

redbot.core.utils.chat_formatting.box(text, lang='')[source]

Get the given text in a code block.

Parameters:
  • text (str) – The text to be marked up.

  • lang (str, optional) – The syntax highlighting language for the codeblock.

Returns:

The marked up text.

Return type:

str

redbot.core.utils.chat_formatting.error(text)[source]

Get text prefixed with an error emoji.

Parameters:

text (str) – The text to be prefixed.

Returns:

The new message.

Return type:

str

redbot.core.utils.chat_formatting.escape(text, *, mass_mentions=False, formatting=False)[source]

Get text with all mass mentions or markdown escaped.

Parameters:
  • text (str) – The text to be escaped.

  • mass_mentions (bool, optional) – Set to True to escape mass mentions in the text.

  • formatting (bool, optional) – Set to True to escape any markdown formatting in the text.

Returns:

The escaped text.

Return type:

str

redbot.core.utils.chat_formatting.format_perms_list(perms)[source]

Format a list of permission names.

This will return a humanized list of the names of all enabled permissions in the provided discord.Permissions object.

Parameters:

perms (discord.Permissions) – The permissions object with the requested permissions to list enabled.

Returns:

The humanized list.

Return type:

str

redbot.core.utils.chat_formatting.humanize_list(items, *, locale=None, style='standard')[source]

Get comma-separated list, with the last element joined with and.

Parameters:
  • items (Sequence[str]) – The items of the list to join together.

  • locale (Optional[str]) – The locale to convert, if not specified it defaults to the bot’s locale.

  • style (str) –

    The style to format the list with.

    Note: Not all styles are necessarily available in all locales, see documentation of babel.lists.format_list for more details.

    standard

    A typical ‘and’ list for arbitrary placeholders. eg. “January, February, and March”

    standard-short

    A short version of a ‘and’ list, suitable for use with short or abbreviated placeholder values. eg. “Jan., Feb., and Mar.”

    or

    A typical ‘or’ list for arbitrary placeholders. eg. “January, February, or March”

    or-short

    A short version of an ‘or’ list. eg. “Jan., Feb., or Mar.”

    unit

    A list suitable for wide units. eg. “3 feet, 7 inches”

    unit-short

    A list suitable for short units eg. “3 ft, 7 in”

    unit-narrow

    A list suitable for narrow units, where space on the screen is very limited. eg. “3′ 7″”

Raises:

ValueError – The locale does not support the specified style.

Examples

>>> humanize_list(['One', 'Two', 'Three'])
'One, Two, and Three'
>>> humanize_list(['One'])
'One'
>>> humanize_list(['omena', 'peruna', 'aplari'], style='or', locale='fi')
'omena, peruna tai aplari'
redbot.core.utils.chat_formatting.humanize_number(val, override_locale=None)[source]

Convert an int or float to a str with digit separators based on bot locale.

Parameters:
  • val (Union[int, float]) – The int/float to be formatted.

  • override_locale (Optional[str]) – A value to override bot’s regional format.

Raises:

decimals.InvalidOperation – If val is greater than 10 x 10^21 for some locales, 10 x 10^24 in others.

Returns:

Locale-aware formatted number.

Return type:

str

redbot.core.utils.chat_formatting.humanize_timedelta(*, timedelta=None, seconds=None)[source]

Get a locale aware human timedelta representation.

This works with either a timedelta object or a number of seconds.

Fractional values will be omitted, and values less than 1 second an empty string.

Parameters:
  • timedelta (Optional[datetime.timedelta]) – A timedelta object

  • seconds (Optional[SupportsInt]) – A number of seconds

Returns:

A locale aware representation of the timedelta or seconds.

Return type:

str

Raises:

ValueError – The function was called with neither a number of seconds nor a timedelta object

redbot.core.utils.chat_formatting.info(text)[source]

Get text prefixed with an info emoji.

Parameters:

text (str) – The text to be prefixed.

Returns:

The new message.

Return type:

str

redbot.core.utils.chat_formatting.inline(text)[source]

Get the given text as inline code.

Parameters:

text (str) – The text to be marked up.

Returns:

The marked up text.

Return type:

str

redbot.core.utils.chat_formatting.italics(text, escape_formatting=True)[source]

Get the given text in italics.

Note: By default, this function will escape text prior to italicising.

Parameters:
  • text (str) – The text to be marked up.

  • escape_formatting (bool, optional) – Set to False to not escape markdown formatting in the text.

Returns:

The marked up text.

Return type:

str

redbot.core.utils.chat_formatting.question(text)[source]

Get text prefixed with a question emoji.

Parameters:

text (str) – The text to be prefixed.

Returns:

The new message.

Return type:

str

redbot.core.utils.chat_formatting.quote(text)[source]

Quotes the given text.

Parameters:

text (str) – The text to be marked up.

Returns:

The marked up text.

Return type:

str

redbot.core.utils.chat_formatting.spoiler(text, escape_formatting=True)[source]

Get the given text as a spoiler.

Note: By default, this function will escape text prior to making the text a spoiler.

Parameters:
  • text (str) – The text to be marked up.

  • escape_formatting (bool, optional) – Set to False to not escape markdown formatting in the text.

Returns:

The marked up text.

Return type:

str

redbot.core.utils.chat_formatting.strikethrough(text, escape_formatting=True)[source]

Get the given text with a strikethrough.

Note: By default, this function will escape text prior to applying a strikethrough.

Parameters:
  • text (str) – The text to be marked up.

  • escape_formatting (bool, optional) – Set to False to not escape markdown formatting in the text.

Returns:

The marked up text.

Return type:

str

redbot.core.utils.chat_formatting.success(text)[source]

Get text prefixed with a success emoji.

Parameters:

text (str) – The text to be prefixed.

Returns:

The new message.

Return type:

str

redbot.core.utils.chat_formatting.text_to_file(text, filename='file.txt', *, spoiler=False, encoding='utf-8')[source]

Prepares text to be sent as a file on Discord, without character limit.

This writes text into a bytes object that can be used for the file or files parameters of discord.abc.Messageable.send().

Parameters:
  • text (str) – The text to put in your file.

  • filename (str) – The name of the file sent. Defaults to file.txt.

  • spoiler (bool) – Whether the attachment is a spoiler. Defaults to False.

Returns:

The file containing your text.

Return type:

discord.File

redbot.core.utils.chat_formatting.underline(text, escape_formatting=True)[source]

Get the given text with an underline.

Note: By default, this function will escape text prior to underlining.

Parameters:
  • text (str) – The text to be marked up.

  • escape_formatting (bool, optional) – Set to False to not escape markdown formatting in the text.

Returns:

The marked up text.

Return type:

str

redbot.core.utils.chat_formatting.warning(text)[source]

Get text prefixed with a warning emoji.

Parameters:

text (str) – The text to be prefixed.

Returns:

The new message.

Return type:

str

Embed Helpers

redbot.core.utils.embed.randomize_colour(embed)[source]

Gives the provided embed a random color. There is an alias for this called randomize_color

Parameters:

embed (discord.Embed) – The embed to add a color to

Returns:

The embed with the color set to a random color

Return type:

discord.Embed

Menus

redbot.core.utils.menus.DEFAULT_CONTROLS = mappingproxy({'⬅️': <function prev_page>, '❌': <function close_menu>, '➡️': <function next_page>})

Default controls for menu() that contain controls for previous page, closing menu, and next page.

await redbot.core.utils.menus.close_menu(ctx, pages, controls, message, page, timeout, emoji, *, user=None)[source]

Function for closing (deleting) menu which is suitable for use in controls mapping that is passed to menu().

await redbot.core.utils.menus.menu(ctx, pages, controls=None, message=None, page=0, timeout=30.0, *, user=None)[source]

An emoji-based menu

All functions for handling what a particular emoji does should be coroutines (i.e. async def). Additionally, they must take all of the parameters of this function, in addition to a string representing the emoji reacted with. This parameter should be the 7th one, and none of the parameters in the handling functions are optional.

Warning

The user parameter is considered provisional. If no issues arise, we plan on including it under developer guarantees in the first release made after 2024-05-24.

Warning

If you’re using the user param, you need to pass it as a keyword-only argument, and set None as the default in your function.

Examples

Simple menu using default controls:

from redbot.core.utils.menus import menu

pages = ["Hello", "Hi", "Bonjour", "Salut"]
await menu(ctx, pages)

Menu with a custom control performing an action (deleting an item from pages list):

from redbot.core.utils import menus

items = ["Apple", "Banana", "Cucumber", "Dragonfruit"]

def generate_pages():
    return [f"{fruit} is an awesome fruit!" for fruit in items]

async def delete_item_action(ctx, pages, controls, message, page, timeout, emoji):
    fruit = items.pop(page)  # lookup and remove corresponding fruit name
    await ctx.send(f"I guess you don't like {fruit}, huh? Deleting...")
    pages = generate_pages()
    if not pages:
        return await menus.close_menu(ctx, pages, controls, message, page, timeout)
    page = min(page, len(pages) - 1)
    return await menus.menu(ctx, pages, controls, message, page, timeout)

pages = generate_pages()
controls = {**menus.DEFAULT_CONTROLS, "\N{NO ENTRY SIGN}": delete_item_action}
await menus.menu(ctx, pages, controls)

Menu with custom controls that output a result (confirmation prompt):

from redbot.core.utils.menus import menu

async def control_yes(*args, **kwargs):
    return True

async def control_no(*args, **kwargs):
    return False

msg = "Do you wish to continue?"
controls = {
    "\N{WHITE HEAVY CHECK MARK}": control_yes,
    "\N{CROSS MARK}": control_no,
}
reply = await menu(ctx, [msg], controls)
if reply:
    await ctx.send("Continuing...")
else:
    await ctx.send("Okay, I'm not going to perform the requested action.")
Parameters:
  • ctx (commands.Context) – The command context

  • pages (Union[List[str], List[discord.Embed]]) – The pages of the menu. All pages need to be of the same type (either str or discord.Embed).

  • controls (Optional[Mapping[str, Callable]]) – A mapping of emoji to the function which handles the action for the emoji. The signature of the function should be the same as of this function and should additionally accept an emoji parameter of type str. If not passed, DEFAULT_CONTROLS is used or only a close menu control is shown when pages is of length 1.

  • message (Optional[discord.Message]) – The message representing the menu. Usually None when first opening the menu

  • page (int) – The current page number of the menu

  • timeout (float) – The time (in seconds) to wait for a reaction

  • user (Optional[discord.User]) –

    The user allowed to interact with the menu. Defaults to ctx.author.

    Warning

    This parameter is provisional. If no issues arise, we plan on including it under developer guarantees in the first release made after 2024-05-24.

Raises:

RuntimeError – If either of the notes above are violated

await redbot.core.utils.menus.next_page(ctx, pages, controls, message, page, timeout, emoji, *, user=None)[source]

Function for showing next page which is suitable for use in controls mapping that is passed to menu().

await redbot.core.utils.menus.prev_page(ctx, pages, controls, message, page, timeout, emoji, *, user=None)[source]

Function for showing previous page which is suitable for use in controls mapping that is passed to menu().

redbot.core.utils.menus.start_adding_reactions(message, emojis)[source]

Start adding reactions to a message.

This is a non-blocking operation - calling this will schedule the reactions being added, but the calling code will continue to execute asynchronously. There is no need to await this function.

This is particularly useful if you wish to start waiting for a reaction whilst the reactions are still being added - in fact, this is exactly what menu() uses to do that.

Parameters:
Returns:

The task for the coroutine adding the reactions.

Return type:

asyncio.Task

Event Predicates

MessagePredicate

class redbot.core.utils.predicates.MessagePredicate(predicate)[source]

Bases: Callable[[Message], bool]

A simple collection of predicates for message events.

These predicates intend to help simplify checks in message events and reduce boilerplate code.

This class should be created through the provided classmethods. Instances of this class are callable message predicates, i.e. they return True if a message matches the criteria.

All predicates are combined with MessagePredicate.same_context().

Examples

Waiting for a response in the same channel and from the same author:

await bot.wait_for("message", check=MessagePredicate.same_context(ctx))

Waiting for a response to a yes or no question:

pred = MessagePredicate.yes_or_no(ctx)
await bot.wait_for("message", check=pred)
if pred.result is True:
    # User responded "yes"
    ...

Getting a member object from a user’s response:

pred = MessagePredicate.valid_member(ctx)
await bot.wait_for("message", check=pred)
member = pred.result
result

The object which the message content matched with. This is dependent on the predicate used - see each predicate’s documentation for details, not every method will assign this attribute. Defaults to None.

Type:

Any

classmethod cancelled(ctx=None, channel=None, user=None)[source]

Match if the message is [p]cancel.

Parameters:
Returns:

The event predicate.

Return type:

MessagePredicate

classmethod contained_in(collection, ctx=None, channel=None, user=None)[source]

Match if the response is contained in the specified collection.

The index of the response in the collection sequence is assigned to the result attribute.

Parameters:
Returns:

The event predicate.

Return type:

MessagePredicate

classmethod equal_to(value, ctx=None, channel=None, user=None)[source]

Match if the response is equal to the specified value.

Parameters:
Returns:

The event predicate.

Return type:

MessagePredicate

classmethod greater(value, ctx=None, channel=None, user=None)[source]

Match if the response is greater than the specified value.

Parameters:
Returns:

The event predicate.

Return type:

MessagePredicate

classmethod has_role(ctx=None, channel=None, user=None)[source]

Match if the response refers to a role which the author has.

Assigns the matching discord.Role object to result.

One of user or ctx must be supplied. This predicate cannot be used in DM.

Parameters:
Returns:

The event predicate.

Return type:

MessagePredicate

classmethod length_greater(length, ctx=None, channel=None, user=None)[source]

Match if the response’s length is greater than the specified length.

Parameters:
Returns:

The event predicate.

Return type:

MessagePredicate

classmethod length_less(length, ctx=None, channel=None, user=None)[source]

Match if the response’s length is less than the specified length.

Parameters:
Returns:

The event predicate.

Return type:

MessagePredicate

classmethod less(value, ctx=None, channel=None, user=None)[source]

Match if the response is less than the specified value.

Parameters:
Returns:

The event predicate.

Return type:

MessagePredicate

classmethod lower_contained_in(collection, ctx=None, channel=None, user=None)[source]

Same as contained_in(), but the response is set to lowercase before matching.

Parameters:
Returns:

The event predicate.

Return type:

MessagePredicate

classmethod lower_equal_to(value, ctx=None, channel=None, user=None)[source]

Match if the response as lowercase is equal to the specified value.

Parameters:
Returns:

The event predicate.

Return type:

MessagePredicate

classmethod positive(ctx=None, channel=None, user=None)[source]

Match if the response is a positive number.

Assigns the response to result as a float.

Parameters:
Returns:

The event predicate.

Return type:

MessagePredicate

classmethod regex(pattern, ctx=None, channel=None, user=None)[source]

Match if the response matches the specified regex pattern.

This predicate will use re.search to find a match. The resulting match object will be assigned to result.

Parameters:
Returns:

The event predicate.

Return type:

MessagePredicate

classmethod same_context(ctx=None, channel=None, user=None)[source]

Match if the message fits the described context.

Parameters:
  • ctx (Optional[Context]) – The current invocation context.

  • channel (Optional[discord.abc.Messageable]) – The messageable object we expect a message in. If unspecified, defaults to ctx.channel. If ctx is unspecified too, the message’s channel will be ignored.

  • user (Optional[discord.abc.User]) – The user we expect a message from. If unspecified, defaults to ctx.author. If ctx is unspecified too, the message’s author will be ignored.

Returns:

The event predicate.

Return type:

MessagePredicate

classmethod valid_float(ctx=None, channel=None, user=None)[source]

Match if the response is a float.

Assigns the response to result as a float.

Parameters:
Returns:

The event predicate.

Return type:

MessagePredicate

classmethod valid_int(ctx=None, channel=None, user=None)[source]

Match if the response is an integer.

Assigns the response to result as an int.

Parameters:
Returns:

The event predicate.

Return type:

MessagePredicate

classmethod valid_member(ctx=None, channel=None, user=None)[source]

Match if the response refers to a member in the current guild.

Assigns the matching discord.Member object to result.

This predicate cannot be used in DM.

Parameters:
Returns:

The event predicate.

Return type:

MessagePredicate

classmethod valid_role(ctx=None, channel=None, user=None)[source]

Match if the response refers to a role in the current guild.

Assigns the matching discord.Role object to result.

This predicate cannot be used in DM.

Parameters:
Returns:

The event predicate.

Return type:

MessagePredicate

classmethod valid_text_channel(ctx=None, channel=None, user=None)[source]

Match if the response refers to a text channel in the current guild.

Assigns the matching discord.TextChannel object to result.

This predicate cannot be used in DM.

Parameters:
Returns:

The event predicate.

Return type:

MessagePredicate

classmethod yes_or_no(ctx=None, channel=None, user=None)[source]

Match if the message is “yes”/”y” or “no”/”n”.

This will assign True for yes, or False for no to the result attribute.

Parameters:
Returns:

The event predicate.

Return type:

MessagePredicate

ReactionPredicate

class redbot.core.utils.predicates.ReactionPredicate(predicate)[source]

Bases: Callable[[Reaction, User], bool]

A collection of predicates for reaction events.

All checks are combined with ReactionPredicate.same_context().

Examples

Confirming a yes/no question with a tick/cross reaction:

from redbot.core.utils.predicates import ReactionPredicate
from redbot.core.utils.menus import start_adding_reactions

msg = await ctx.send("Yes or no?")
start_adding_reactions(msg, ReactionPredicate.YES_OR_NO_EMOJIS)

pred = ReactionPredicate.yes_or_no(msg, ctx.author)
await ctx.bot.wait_for("reaction_add", check=pred)
if pred.result is True:
    # User responded with tick
    ...
else:
    # User responded with cross
    ...

Waiting for the first reaction from any user with one of the first 5 letters of the alphabet:

from redbot.core.utils.predicates import ReactionPredicate
from redbot.core.utils.menus import start_adding_reactions

msg = await ctx.send("React to me!")
emojis = ReactionPredicate.ALPHABET_EMOJIS[:5]
start_adding_reactions(msg, emojis)

pred = ReactionPredicate.with_emojis(emojis, msg)
await ctx.bot.wait_for("reaction_add", check=pred)
# pred.result is now the index of the letter in `emojis`
result

The object which the reaction matched with. This is dependent on the predicate used - see each predicate’s documentation for details, not every method will assign this attribute. Defaults to None.

Type:

Any

ALPHABET_EMOJIS = ('🇦', '🇧', '🇨', '🇩', '🇪', '🇫', '🇬', '🇭', '🇮', '🇯', '🇰', '🇱', '🇲', '🇳', '🇴', '🇵', '🇶', '🇷', '🇸', '🇹', '🇺', '🇻', '🇼', '🇽', '🇾', '🇿')

A tuple of all 26 alphabetical letter emojis.

Type:

Tuple[str, …]

NUMBER_EMOJIS = ('0⃣', '1⃣', '2⃣', '3⃣', '4⃣', '5⃣', '6⃣', '7⃣', '8⃣', '9⃣')

A tuple of all single-digit number emojis, 0 through 9.

Type:

Tuple[str, …]

YES_OR_NO_EMOJIS = ('✅', '❎')

A tuple containing the tick emoji and cross emoji, in that order.

Type:

Tuple[str, str]

classmethod same_context(message=None, user=None)[source]

Match if a reaction fits the described context.

This will ignore reactions added by the bot user, regardless of whether or not user is supplied.

Parameters:
  • message (Optional[discord.Message]) – The message which we expect a reaction to. If unspecified, the reaction’s message will be ignored.

  • user (Optional[discord.abc.User]) – The user we expect to react. If unspecified, the user who added the reaction will be ignored.

Returns:

The event predicate.

Return type:

ReactionPredicate

classmethod with_emojis(emojis, message=None, user=None)[source]

Match if the reaction is one of the specified emojis.

Parameters:
Returns:

The event predicate.

Return type:

ReactionPredicate

classmethod yes_or_no(message=None, user=None)[source]

Match if the reaction is a tick or cross emoji.

The emojis used are in ReactionPredicate.YES_OR_NO_EMOJIS.

This will assign True for yes, or False for no to the result attribute.

Parameters:
Returns:

The event predicate.

Return type:

ReactionPredicate

Mod Helpers

await redbot.core.utils.mod.check_permissions(ctx, perms)[source]

Check if the author has required permissions.

This will always return True if the author is a bot owner, or has the administrator permission. If perms is empty, this will only check if the user is a bot owner.

Parameters:
  • ctx (Context) – The command invocation context to check.

  • perms (Dict[str, bool]) – A dictionary mapping permissions to their required states. Valid permission names are those listed as properties of the discord.Permissions class.

Returns:

True if the author has the required permissions.

Return type:

bool

redbot.core.utils.mod.get_audit_reason(author, reason=None, *, shorten=False)[source]

Construct a reason to appear in the audit log.

Parameters:
  • author (discord.Member) – The author behind the audit log action.

  • reason (str) – The reason behind the audit log action.

  • shorten (bool) – When set to True, the returned audit reason string will be shortened to fit the max length allowed by Discord audit logs.

Returns:

The formatted audit log reason.

Return type:

str

await redbot.core.utils.mod.is_admin_or_superior(bot, obj)[source]

Same as is_mod_or_superior except for admin permissions.

If a message is passed, its author’s permissions are checked. If a role is passed, it simply checks if it is the admin role.

Parameters:
Returns:

True if the object has admin permissions.

Return type:

bool

Raises:

TypeError – If the wrong type of obj was passed.

await redbot.core.utils.mod.is_mod_or_superior(bot, obj)[source]

Check if an object has mod or superior permissions.

If a message is passed, its author’s permissions are checked. If a role is passed, it simply checks if it is one of either the admin or mod roles.

Parameters:
Returns:

True if the object has mod permissions.

Return type:

bool

Raises:

TypeError – If the wrong type of obj was passed.

await redbot.core.utils.mod.mass_purge(messages, channel, *, reason=None)[source]

Bulk delete messages from a channel.

If more than 100 messages are supplied, the bot will delete 100 messages at a time, sleeping between each action.

Note

Messages must not be older than 14 days, and the bot must not be a user account.

Parameters:
Raises:
await redbot.core.utils.mod.slow_deletion(messages)[source]

Delete a list of messages one at a time.

Any exceptions raised when trying to delete the message will be silenced.

Parameters:

messages (iterable of discord.Message) – The messages to delete.

redbot.core.utils.mod.strfdelta(delta)[source]

Format a timedelta object to a message with time units.

Parameters:

delta (datetime.timedelta) – The duration to parse.

Returns:

A message representing the timedelta with units.

Return type:

str

Tunnel

class redbot.core.utils.tunnel.Tunnel(*args, **kwargs)[source]

Bases: object

A tunnel interface for messages

This will return None on init if the destination or source + origin pair is already in use, or the existing tunnel object if one exists for the designated parameters

sender

The person who opened the tunnel

Type:

discord.Member

origin

The channel in which it was opened

Type:

discord.TextChannel, discord.VoiceChannel, discord.StageChannel, or discord.Thread

recipient

The user on the other end of the tunnel

Type:

discord.User

await close_because_disabled(close_message)[source]

Sends a message to both ends of the tunnel that the tunnel is now closed.

Parameters:

close_message (str) – The message to send to both ends of the tunnel.

await communicate(*, message, topic=None, skip_message_content=False)[source]

Forwards a message.

Parameters:
  • message (discord.Message) – The message to forward

  • topic (str) – A string to prepend

  • skip_message_content (bool) – If this flag is set, only the topic will be sent

Returns:

a pair of ints matching the ids of the message which was forwarded and the last message the bot sent to do that. useful if waiting for reactions.

Return type:

int, int

Raises:

discord.Forbidden – This should only happen if the user’s DMs are disabled the bot can’t upload at the origin channel or can’t add reactions there.

staticmethod await files_from_attach(m, *, use_cached=False, images_only=False)[source]

makes a list of file objects from a message returns an empty list if none, or if the sum of file sizes is too large for the bot to send

Parameters:
  • m (discord.Message) – A message to get attachments from

  • use_cached (bool) – Whether to use proxy_url rather than url when downloading the attachment

  • images_only (bool) – Whether only image attachments should be added to returned list

Returns:

A list of discord.File objects

Return type:

list of discord.File

staticmethod await message_forwarder(*, destination, content=None, embed=None, files=None)[source]

This does the actual sending, use this instead of a full tunnel if you are using command initiated reactions instead of persistent event based ones

Parameters:
Returns:

The messages sent as a result.

Return type:

List[discord.Message]

Raises:

Common Filters

redbot.core.utils.common_filters.escape_spoilers(content)[source]

Get a string with spoiler syntax escaped.

Parameters:

content (str) – The string to escape.

Returns:

The escaped string.

Return type:

str

redbot.core.utils.common_filters.escape_spoilers_and_mass_mentions(content)[source]

Get a string with spoiler syntax and mass mentions escaped

Parameters:

content (str) – The string to escape.

Returns:

The escaped string.

Return type:

str

redbot.core.utils.common_filters.filter_invites(to_filter)[source]

Get a string with discord invites sanitized.

Will match any discord.gg, discordapp.com/invite, discord.com/invite, discord.me, or discord.io/discord.li invite URL.

Parameters:

to_filter (str) – The string to filter.

Returns:

The sanitized string.

Return type:

str

redbot.core.utils.common_filters.filter_mass_mentions(to_filter)[source]

Get a string with mass mentions sanitized.

Will match any here and/or everyone mentions.

Parameters:

to_filter (str) – The string to filter.

Returns:

The sanitized string.

Return type:

str

redbot.core.utils.common_filters.filter_urls(to_filter)[source]

Get a string with URLs sanitized.

This will match any URLs starting with these protocols:

  • http://

  • https://

  • ftp://

  • sftp://

Parameters:

to_filter (str) – The string to filter.

Returns:

The sanitized string.

Return type:

str

redbot.core.utils.common_filters.filter_various_mentions(to_filter)[source]

Get a string with role, user, and channel mentions sanitized.

This is mainly for use on user display names, not message content, and should be applied sparingly.

Parameters:

to_filter (str) – The string to filter.

Returns:

The sanitized string.

Return type:

str

redbot.core.utils.common_filters.normalize_smartquotes(to_normalize)[source]

Get a string with smart quotes replaced with normal ones

Parameters:

to_normalize (str) – The string to normalize.

Returns:

The normalized string.

Return type:

str

Utility UI

class redbot.core.utils.views.ConfirmView(author=None, *, timeout=180.0, disable_buttons=False)[source]

Bases: View

A simple discord.ui.View used for confirming something.

Parameters:
  • author (Optional[discord.abc.User]) – The user who you want to be interacting with the confirmation. If this is omitted anyone can click yes or no.

  • timeout (float) – The timeout of the view in seconds. Defaults to 180 seconds.

  • disable_buttons (bool) – Whether to disable the buttons instead of removing them from the message after the timeout. Defaults to False.

Examples

Using the view:

view = ConfirmView(ctx.author)
# attach the message to the view after sending it.
# This way, the view will be automatically removed
# from the message after the timeout.
view.message = await ctx.send("Are you sure you about that?", view=view)
await view.wait()
if view.result:
    await ctx.send("Okay I will do that.")
else:
    await ctx.send("I will not be doing that then.")

Auto-disable the buttons after timeout if nothing is pressed:

view = ConfirmView(ctx.author, disable_buttons=True)
view.message = await ctx.send("Are you sure you about that?", view=view)
await view.wait()
if view.result:
    await ctx.send("Okay I will do that.")
else:
    await ctx.send("I will not be doing that then.")
result

The result of the confirm view.

Type:

Optional[bool]

author

The author of the message who is allowed to press the buttons.

Type:

Optional[discord.abc.User]

message

The message the confirm view is sent on. This can be set while sending the message. This can also be left as None in which case nothing will happen in on_timeout(), if the view is never interacted with.

Type:

Optional[discord.Message]

disable_buttons

Whether to disable the buttons isntead of removing them on timeout (if the message attribute has been set on the view).

Type:

bool

confirm_button[source]

A discord.ui.Button to confirm the message.

The button’s callback will set result to True, defer the response, and call on_timeout() to clean up the view.

Example

Changing the style and label of this discord.ui.Button:

view = ConfirmView(ctx.author)
view.confirm_button.style = discord.ButtonStyle.red
view.confirm_button.label = "Delete"
view.dismiss_button.label = "Cancel"
view.message = await ctx.send(
    "Are you sure you want to remove #very-important-channel?", view=view
)
await view.wait()
if view.result:
    await ctx.send("Channel #very-important-channel deleted.")
else:
    await ctx.send("Canceled.")
Type:

discord.ui.Button

dismiss_button[source]

A discord.ui.Button to dismiss the message.

The button’s callback will set result to False, defer the response, and call on_timeout() to clean up the view.

Example

Changing the style and label of this discord.ui.Button:

view = ConfirmView(ctx.author)
view.confirm_button.style = discord.ButtonStyle.red
view.confirm_button.label = "Delete"
view.dismiss_button.label = "Cancel"
view.message = await ctx.send(
    "Are you sure you want to remove #very-important-channel?", view=view
)
await view.wait()
if view.result:
    await ctx.send("Channel #very-important-channel deleted.")
else:
    await ctx.send("Canceled.")
Type:

discord.ui.Button

await interaction_check(interaction)[source]

A callback that is called when an interaction happens within the view that checks whether the view should process item callbacks for the interaction.

The default implementation of this will assign value of discord.Interaction.message to the message attribute and either:

  • send an ephemeral failure message and return False, if author is set and isn’t the same as the interaction user, or

  • return True

See also

The documentation of the callback in the base class: discord.ui.View.interaction_check()

await on_timeout()[source]

A callback that is called by the provided (default) callbacks for confirm_button and dismiss_button as well as when a view’s timeout elapses without being explicitly stopped.

The default implementation will either disable the buttons when disable_buttons is True, or remove the view from the message otherwise.

Note

This will not do anything if message is None.

class redbot.core.utils.views.SetApiModal(default_service=None, default_keys=None)[source]

Bases: Modal

A secure discord.ui.Modal used to set API keys.

This Modal can either be used standalone with its own discord.ui.View for custom implementations, or created via SetApiView to have an easy to implement secure way of setting API keys.

Parameters:
  • default_service (Optional[str]) – The service to add the API keys to. If this is omitted the bot owner is allowed to set their own service. Defaults to None.

  • default_keys (Optional[Dict[str, str]]) – The API keys the service is expecting. This will only allow the bot owner to set keys the Modal is expecting. Defaults to None.

await on_submit(interaction)[source]

Called when the modal is submitted.

Parameters:

interaction (Interaction) – The interaction that submitted this modal.

class redbot.core.utils.views.SetApiView(default_service=None, default_keys=None)[source]

Bases: View

A secure discord.ui.View used to set API keys.

This view is an standalone, easy to implement discord.ui.View to allow an bot owner to securely set API keys in a public environment.

Parameters:
  • default_service (Optional[str]) – The service to add the API keys to. If this is omitted the bot owner is allowed to set their own service. Defaults to None.

  • default_keys (Optional[Dict[str, str]]) – The API keys the service is expecting. This will only allow the bot owner to set keys the Modal is expecting. Defaults to None.

await interaction_check(interaction)[source]

A callback that is called when an interaction happens within the view that checks whether the view should process item callbacks for the interaction.

This is useful to override if, for example, you want to ensure that the interaction author is a given user.

The default implementation of this returns True.

Note

If an exception occurs within the body then the check is considered a failure and on_error() is called.

Parameters:

interaction (Interaction) – The interaction that occurred.

Returns:

Whether the view children’s callbacks should be called.

Return type:

bool

class redbot.core.utils.views.SimpleMenu(pages, timeout=180.0, page_start=0, delete_after_timeout=False, disable_after_timeout=False, use_select_menu=False, use_select_only=False)[source]

Bases: View

A simple Button menu

Parameters:
  • pages (list of str, discord.Embed, or dict.) – The pages of the menu. if the page is a dict its keys must be valid messageable args. e,g. “content”, “embed”, etc.

  • page_start (int) – The page to start the menu at.

  • timeout (float) – The time (in seconds) to wait for a reaction defaults to 180 seconds.

  • delete_after_timeout (bool) – Whether or not to delete the message after the timeout has expired. Defaults to False.

  • disable_after_timeout (bool) – Whether to disable all components on the menu after timeout has expired. By default the view is removed from the message on timeout. Defaults to False.

  • use_select_menu (bool) – Whether or not to include a select menu to jump specifically between pages. Defaults to False.

  • use_select_only (bool) – Whether the menu will only display the select menu for paginating instead of the buttons. The stop button will remain but is positioned under the select menu in this instance. Defaults to False.

Examples

You can provide a list of strings:

from redbot.core.utils.views import SimpleMenu

pages = ["Hello", "Hi", "Bonjour", "Salut"]
await SimpleMenu(pages).start(ctx)

You can provide a list of dicts:

from redbot.core.utils.views import SimpleMenu
pages = [{"content": "My content", "embed": discord.Embed(description="hello")}]
await SimpleMenu(pages).start(ctx)
await interaction_check(interaction)[source]

Ensure only the author is allowed to interact with the menu.

await on_timeout()[source]

A callback that is called when a view’s timeout elapses without being explicitly stopped.

await start(ctx, *, user=None, ephemeral=False)[source]

Used to start the menu displaying the first page requested.

Warning

The user parameter is considered provisional. If no issues arise, we plan on including it under developer guarantees in the first release made after 2024-05-24.

Parameters:
  • ctx (commands.Context) – The context to start the menu in.

  • user (discord.User) –

    The user allowed to interact with the menu. If this is None, ctx.author will be able to interact with the menu.

    Warning

    This parameter is provisional. If no issues arise, we plan on including it under developer guarantees in the first release made after 2024-05-24.

  • ephemeral (bool) – Send the message ephemerally. This only works if the context is from a slash command interaction.

await start_dm(user)[source]

Used to start displaying the menu in a direct message.

Parameters:

user (discord.User) – The user that will be direct messaged by the bot.

AntiSpam

class redbot.core.utils.antispam.AntiSpam(intervals)[source]

Bases: object

A class that can be used to count the number of events that happened within specified intervals. Later, it can be checked whether the specified maximum count for any of the specified intervals has been exceeded.

Examples

Tracking whether the number of reports sent by a user within a single guild is spammy:

class MyCog(commands.Cog):
    INTERVALS = [
        # More than one report within last 5 seconds is considered spam.
        (datetime.timedelta(seconds=5), 1),
        # More than 3 reports within the last 5 minutes are considered spam.
        (datetime.timedelta(minutes=5), 3),
        # More than 10 reports within the last hour are considered spam.
        (datetime.timedelta(hours=1), 10),
        # More than 24 reports within a single day (last 24 hours) are considered spam.
        (datetime.timedelta(days=1), 24),
    ]

    def __init__(self, bot):
        self.bot = bot
        self.antispam = {}

    @commands.guild_only()
    @commands.command()
    async def report(self, ctx, content):
        # We want to track whether a single user within a single guild
        # sends a spammy number of reports.
        key = (ctx.guild.id, ctx.author.id)

        if key not in self.antispam:
            # Create an instance of the AntiSpam class with given intervals.
            self.antispam[key] = AntiSpam(self.INTERVALS)
            # If you want to use the default intervals, you can use: AntiSpam([])

        # Check if the user sent too many reports recently.
        # The `AntiSpam.spammy` property is `True` if, for any interval,
        # the number of events that happened within that interval
        # exceeds the number specified for that interval.
        if self.antispam[key].spammy:
            await ctx.send(
                "You've sent too many reports recently, please try again later."
            )
            return

        # Make any other early-return checks.

        # Record the event.
        self.antispam[key].stamp()

        # Save the report.
        # self.config...

        # Send a message to the user.
        await ctx.send("Your report has been submitted.")
Parameters:

intervals (List[Tuple[datetime.timedelta, int]]) –

A list of tuples in the format (timedelta, int), where the timedelta represents the length of the interval, and the int represents the maximum number of times something can happen within that interval.

If an empty list is provided, the following defaults will be used:

  • 3 per 5 seconds

  • 5 per 1 minute

  • 10 per 1 hour

  • 24 per 1 day

property spammy

Whether, for any interval, the number of events that happened within that interval exceeds the number specified for that interval.

stamp()[source]

Mark an event timestamp against the list of antispam intervals happening right now. Use this after all checks have passed, and your action is taking place.

The stamp will last until the corresponding interval duration has expired (set when this AntiSpam object was initiated).